86. The Game’s Not Dead!~

Very short update, but I wanted to keep things alive around here. Things are still coming along well and the list of music that needs to be written is getting very short now.

I have taken a job full time through the week, mostly because I already had the job lined up for after Taiji’s release and even though the job starting itself was delayed, Taiji’s release was delayed more. I chose to take the job anyway because I didn’t want to miss the opportunity and I really don’t have much I still need to be doing day-to-day personally leading up to the initial release. I’m mostly just directing Gregory on the music and doing occasional tech stuff for the music. Gregory has been fantastic to work with, he has a deep understanding of the game, and has the remaining music writing well under control.

I have still been trying to use the time to polish more and contribute to the soundtrack where I can, but after a rough couple weeks of trying to squeeze in Taiji stuff during the week, I’ve moved to just working weekends on Taiji, at least until after release.

Speaking of release, I know I keep saying I’ll have something to announce on that front soon, but I really do mean it now. Soon is even sooner than it’s ever been before. In fact, I can announce that I will have something to announce on August 12.

Practically SOON I say!

As for the switch port, it was always the plan to focus on the PC release first, and then the serious work on porting will start after I’ve fixed up any unforeseen bugs that happen when the game gets in the hands of you all.

Look forward to the announcement on August 12 and thanks again for your patience!

84. How I Design Puzzles

This post was adapted from an answer to one of my playtesters questions:

What methods do you usually use to design this game’s puzzles, and which of those methods do you think lead to the best (most enjoyable?) result?

There are three main approaches to designing puzzles in this type of game that I’m aware of.

1.Top-Down Method

This approach starts with the solution state and works backwards to constrain the puzzle so that this is the only solution.

This is an approach which I very rarely, if ever, have used in Taiji. There can be some valid reasons to choose it–if one is in a tight spot and needs to solve another design problem perhaps–but generally you don’t have much luck making good puzzles with this approach.

As a caveat, all design approaches include at least some “top down” elements. For example, one has to pick an idea that seems interesting in the first place. Though it should be easy to see the difference between “this point is connected to this other point” as a top down imposition, and “this is the exact path that you take to get there”. So the problems of this approach often come with the extent to which it is applied. Keeping things in balance I think is a theme that will be clear through this discussion.

Also, if I move to include the observational puzzles in the game, you could argue that those are fully top down designs. But since those puzzles are more about observation or abstracting something in the environment than they are about logic within a grid, the design approach is different. This discussion will be long enough just focusing on the logic puzzles, so I’m going to have to leave the topic of environmentally-clued puzzles undiscussed for now.

Moving on to the next approach.

2. Experimental Method

In this approach you basically just plop down some random things and see what happens.

This sometimes produces good puzzles, but it’s difficult to make larger puzzles that have good solution paths through them. Getting good puzzles this way is mostly down to luck, and with smaller puzzles you just tend to have better luck. Regardless, this approach is the only one you can take early on, since when you are still adding new mechanics to the game, you still have a lot to learn about how your own game functions.

Another downside to this approach that perhaps just affects me personally, is that when just plopping things down randomly, I tend to draw symmetrical shapes because they “look nicer.” Unfortunately this also tends to create symmetrical solutions in Taiji. This is still in the game often enough that players can notice the pattern, but I’ve worked hard to make sure that it is not a universally applicable tactic. It’s okay to have symmetry show up sometimes, as it is thematically appropriate, but too many times and the game falls flat.

And the final design method.

3. Forwards Method

This is the trickiest to explain. Here is a link to a long form explanation and example, but the basic gist is that you start with some deducible situation and place that into the puzzle. You can then add more deductive moves into the panel, creating as much specificity as you want.

This method is useful because it gives you the most control over the players path through the puzzle. You are designing the moves that they will make in the order they will make them.

With that said, it is a tool that must be used with care. Just because you can fully specify every tile in the solution doesn’t mean that you must. Sometimes leaving a little play in the puzzle is more interesting. In a pen-and-paper puzzle, you don’t want multiple solutions because the solver needs to check against a canonical solution in the back of the book, but in a video game you can be more flexible and you should.

Use your discretion as a designer and prune alternate solutions if they allow the player to miss the main idea of the puzzle, but there’s more than one way to skin an electric eel and part of the magic of video games is that they are a bit different for every player. Try to embrace that whenever your design goals allow it.

In the best case, the forwards design technique can allow you to focus your puzzle designs around strong core ideas. But in the worst case, it can lead to a flat feeling, where all puzzles become a sort of paint by numbers.

Still, it is the most powerful technique that I have learned over the course of designing Taiji, and even through it is dangerous, I think it is a requirement to have this tool in your toolbox. It’s just important to remember that you are designing puzzles to serve the overall game design and not to serve the tool.

My Approach

So I mostly use a combo of methods 2 and 3; the experimental and forwards methods. But I think the best puzzles tend to come from a mixture of forwards design and some happy accidents. There are also meta aspects that I could get into which can really take puzzles to another level, but I’ve gone on long enough so that will have to wait for another time.

In any case, over time I have leaned more towards judging puzzles by their content instead of by their enjoyability. I think this is a more stable approach once one becomes more sure of themselves as a designer. However, this does sometimes lead to situations like one I had the other day. There is a particular puzzle in the game that I always loved, but which I have come to realize many players find annoying. I was so convinced that the idea for the puzzle was good, that I didn’t worry too much about its enjoyability. Sometimes this is a good approach, however in this case, my disregard for the enjoyability of the puzzle led me to overlook its failure to communicate any appreciation for that core idea. Players found the way in which I was presenting the idea so repulsive that they came away finding the idea itself repulsive.

I knew the idea was good though, so yesterday I went back to the drawing board and designed a new introduction to the idea.

So, as with all game design, be sure to test your design theories against reality and see if you’re getting an acceptable response. Not everyone has to enjoy every puzzle, but if most people hate a puzzle that you’re in love with, then perhaps there is something about the way you presented that idea that could be improved.

As an aside, I want to mention the two biggest mistakes that I see other designers make. The first is not listening enough to others early on in their careers, and the second is listening too much to others once one becomes more established. When you’re starting out, you don’t even know what you don’t know, and it’s more likely than not if someone has a criticism of your game, that you probably should change something. However, as you develop skill and experience as a designer, it is important to learn what your own tastes and values are, and accept that sometimes these will conflict with those of other people who play your game. Accepting feedback and having a guiding vision are both important forces to keep in balance.


In summary, I think the best puzzles are the ones that have a strong idea at the core of them. Something that can be verbalized like “this puzzle shows you that when X and Y are the case that Z occurs” or “this puzzle is about carefully interweaving 4 things while maintaining symmetry” or “this puzzle introduces this new mechanic, but requires the player to deduce its meaning by virtue of it being the only possible explanation”.

I haven’t always lived up to this standard with every single puzzle in the game, but when I haven’t, I have at least made sure that the puzzles serve a pacing reason or form a sequence or meta-structural element that has some unique interest to it.

And well…sequences and meta-structure can add immensely to the enjoyment of a puzzle game, but that’s a whole additional discussion which will have to come at a later time.

Elyot Grant’s 30 Puzzle Design Lessons, Extended Director’s Cut – This is a fantastic resource, and although lengthy, is an extremely enjoyable watch as well.

83. In The Final Stretch

I recently finished one of the two biggest remaining tasks on the to-do list and I’ve been celebrating a bit by working on some less important polish related things. Sometimes I find it difficult to immediately jump from one big challenging task into the next, and it can be good to take a break while still being productive on other things.

Early on, I figured out much of the art direction for Taiji, and most of those decisions I have stuck with until the end. But there were a few things that I changed as I went through the project. A big one of those was how to handle interior lighting.

I always knew that I wanted to have seamless transitions from the outside world into the inside world. Most top-down 2D games have separate maps that you load into when you go inside, and I wanted to avoid that. You can see an example of a typical building exterior and interior below (notice that the building is bigger on the inside!)

Although this example is nearly 30 years old, this is still the approach used in most top-down 2D games today. At the time of Link to the Past’s release, I imagine the choice mostly came from system limitations, but there are still a few good reasons to choose this approach today. One of those is that it’s just much more time consuming to keep everything seamless.

So if we don’t go into a separate screen, what happens when you go into an interior? We can’t just keep the roof of the building visible or we won’t be able to see what we’re doing once we’re inside. So instead I decided that parts of the building would be cut away to reveal the interior. Sort of like a diorama of the interior with a removable set of walls and ceilings. A big inspiration for this approach for me was the interiors of Final Fantasy 9, although the Sims games also use a similar approach and I’m sure someone will be able to name a more recent example.

You can see how this approach has turned out in Taiji below:

Although I nailed down the transitions relatively early, it took some time before I settled on a lighting approach. Initially I chose to do the interiors using the same method I use for exterior shadows. This had some downsides of course, in that things were either fully in shadow or fully lit, and trying to do smooth falloffs required dithering. There’s nothing fundamentally wrong with this approach, but it does have some drawbacks that will become more apparent.

When it came time to do some interiors without windows, such as caves, I felt that having the entire area be in shadow looked too flat. So I chose to have the cutaway also allow sunlight into the interior. Unfortunately this created an inconsistency between different interiors, but it at least allowed for some better definition and readability in these areas.

This was the approach I went with until it came time to do the Gallery area, where the interior was expansive enough that even this approach began to look strange. So I thought of a third approach that would allow me to have all of the features that I wanted.

I have briefly covered this approach before in this video devlog, but I will attempt to summarize here as I know not everyone wants to dig through a video.

So, the basic approach is that I have 3 separate “light maps” for the interior. One for the direct lighting coming from the sun, one for some rear bounce lighting, so that windows facing away from the camera can have some light come in, and a third that is for ambient or interior light sources, such as light fixtures or torches.

Each of these three maps is then assigned to the Red, Green, and Blue channels of a single image, with the alpha channel being used to mask off the effect completely. So the final lighting map would look like the following, alongside how it gets composited with the rest of the art in-game:

This is a very effective approach, and although it could perhaps be extended further to allow for darker shadows and brighter highlights, it is what I have settled on for the final game and I’m happy enough with it. The only problem is all those pesky old interiors which I did before I developed this approach.

They’ve been sitting around for a year or more at this point, but this week I’ve been going back through and updating them finally. It’s a more subtle difference in some cases, but I am glad to have things be more consistent. You can look at some comparisons below:

Notice in this case I needed to add some interior light sources, as well as change some other details of the art. Also the approach for “inside of rock” has changed since the old art was done and I updated the art to match that as well.

In this scenario, the difference is much more subtle, although you can notice that the dithering in the earlier lighting makes some of the symbols on the puzzle difficult to read. I also seem to have accidentally flipped some symbols since the earlier builds, so I guess that gives me something to fix real quick.

So, I have been mentioning that the game is close to complete and to expect a release date announcement soon, and I’ve been saying this for a few months now. However, the game has suffered a bit of an internal delay, and “soon” has turned into “not as soon”. With that said, I will once again reiterate that the game is close to complete and to expect a release date announcement soon!

82. Happy New Year!

Well, I didn’t get a trailer done before the new year, but things are still chugging along. I did want to remind everyone once again that I have a more-frequently-updated video devlog over on YouTube, if you’re not subscribed. Maybe I should have always been cross-posting those here, but I always found it a bit nice to keep the two devlogs separate, especially since some people prefer to just read or skim rather than sit down and watch a video. Here’s the latest episode of that if you do want to watch:

I’ve been continuing testing and polishing the game. There are still a couple major things that need to be done, but there are also dozens of minor problems that I’ve been clearing up.

One of those minor problems is readability issues in the environment. Sometimes it’s hard to tell where you can or cannot walk. For example, below is a before/after comparison of the cliff overlooking the Mine area. The player is standing at the edge of a several hundred foot drop-off, but due to a lack of contrast, it was often misread by players as being level with everything else. The added darkness creates a good contrast and foreground/background separation, and it also fades away when you enter into the area, keeping things readable from a gameplay perspective.

One of my art weaknesses is that I often don’t use enough contrast. Perhaps one excuse for my fear of contrast in doing the art for Taiji is that I wanted to avoid distracting noise. But this desire to avoid noise has unfortunately led much of the artwork to look very flat. I still think the art for the game is “good enough.” There’s no way I can go through and try to fix every single thing in the game at this point, but I’m trying to fix the worst spots. And moving forward it’s something that I’ll try to improve upon in future projects.

Hopefully I’ll have that release date announcement trailer to show you sooner rather than later, but I don’t want to put it out until I feel solid about a release date.

Thanks for reading!

81. Bonus Area

Over the course of making Taiji, I’ve designed many more puzzles than what have survived into the game as it exists today. Most were cut because they just weren’t very good. But there were some decent puzzles that had to be removed because there was no good way to fit them into the existing areas; they took up too much physical space or dragged out the pacing too much.

So for the past couple months I’ve curated those puzzles into a hidden bonus area. There are also a few puzzles that were custom built for this area to round out some of the missing spots in the overall design.

Finishing this area is a major milestone, and means that the game is basically gameplay complete. With that said there are still several major things that I need to do before the game can be shipped. And one of those is to playtest the game a decent amount. I sent out beta invites to several long-suffering volunteers over the past week and have been getting a lot of good feedback so far, and fixing a lot of bugs.

This next week, if the bugfixes become more manageable, then I will start working on an announcement. So look forward to that in a couple weeks, hopefully. In the meantime enjoy these screenshots of the new area.

79. Assemblage

Since the prior post, the pixel art for the Mill area has been fully completed and I’ve been chopping everything into assets that can be assembled in game. Below, you can see the finished pixel art as well as the current state of integrating it into the game:

You may notice the colors are a bit different in the in-game version (particularly red). This is because the game uses a color grading setup that is not optimized to any particular area in the game. Ideally before release I’ll go through and tweak the color grading a bit for each subarea to lock in a more unique look. If I can’t afford to do that though, I don’t think it looks too bad as it is.

Either way, there is clearly an empty space on the right hand side of the area that needs to be filled in!

The reason the finished art has that empty space is because I will be assembling that section using existing assets from the Shrine area, as it is a mechanical mix-in with the puzzles from that area, and the art for that area was created very modularly.

So, baseline art implementation is around 80% done or so. I still have to implement the exteriors, add some moving parts and add the entrance path below the plateau area to the left. After that I’ll have to add in all the collision and triggers, which is another whole bucket-load of work, but at least everything seems to be proceeding straightforwardly.

I will be very happy to be finished with this area and be focused on tying up the last little loose ends so this game will be ready for release. That’s not to say that I have a firm idea of when the game will be done. Although I think it could still possibly ship before the end of the year, it’s likely to slip somewhat into next year. Thanks for your patience on that front, I’m trying to get things done as quickly as I can.

I know some folks are probably following the written devlog and not the video devlogs, and I’ve been a bit more diligent about putting out those than I have been over here. I apologize for that. I often am remiss to simply post the same information over here that’s in the videos, as it feels redundant, but I think having some updates is better than going a whole month (or two!) without any sign of life.

If you’re not following the video devlog, you can find it on YouTube over here.

76. Endings and New Beginnings

Things are finally progressing! I finished up the endgame area a week ago and shipped that out to a small group of testers. I believe there will still be some changes/improvements there, but overall I’m happy with the initial feedback I’ve seen.

Experience has shown me that when I take this long between builds of the game, major things will end up broken. Because of that, I’ve been taking a little downtime between shipping this build and implementing the next major area for the game. I didn’t want testers finding game-breaking bugs while I’m ripping up so much that I can’t ship a build until I finish the art for the next area.

Thus far, The bugs have definitely started to flow in. In fact, I’ve not been able to address the endgame area feedback as much as I’d like because there were so many other bugs. But it’s good to have my decision to postpone major changes validated.

In the meantime, as part of my break from game-breaking work, I’ve completed one of those “nice-to-have” improvements on the list; something I thought I might not be able to get done before ship: I’ve been re-doing some of the art for the starting area. You can see a couple comparisons below:

It’s hard to believe it’s already been two years since I originally did some of this artwork, but it’s been in desperate need of improvement for a while. I think the revision has much stronger details while also having a cleaner look that fits better with the rest of the game’s aesthetics.

It’s also a bit of a testament to how much I’ve improved as an artist over the course of this project. When I first started doing the art, I really didn’t know if I’d be up to the task. I’ve done some dabbling in visual art through my life, but I’ve never considered it something that I was particularly strong at. But through a combination of thoughtful art direction choices and just churning away for years on end, I think I’ve achieved something that looks nice and works well for the game.

So, What’s Next?

As I mentioned in the previous post, the next major task on the list is the artwork for the Mill area. I also need to re-think the structure of the area significantly. The current implementation is too straightforward and boring:

As you can see, most of the area is just a straight line. Although there is a bit of branching in the middle, the puzzles on the left side there are completely optional, so the main thrust of the area is totally linear. This structure, combined with the sheer number of puzzles in this area (44 essential, 25 optional), can be pretty exhausting for players to go through, and although adding artwork to the area can help significantly with the fatiguing aspect of the experience, I also want to try some other things.

I’ve experimented a bit with the structural designs for each area as I go along. I always try to do something a little different. Some areas are very linear, with a straight line of puzzles you have to all do in order. Some are mostly linear but with a few splits that you can do out of order. Some are almost entirely non-linear, with many options that are equally challenging.

One of the things I’ve thought about doing with the Mill area is designing it a bit “backwards”, with the player finding the hardest puzzles in the area before the introductory panels. This could backfire horribly, since some players may assume they should be able to solve anything that’s accessible to them, but it fits into my plan to go for a much more non-linear and knowledge-gated approach to this area than I have achieved with any of the others.

By “knowledge-gating”, I’m referring to the concept that the only barrier to progress is that you don’t understand how to do something, rather than requiring the player to obtain some item, or solve a long set of puzzles elsewhere.

Perhaps the area will be split into several buildings which can each be entered by solving a difficult puzzle. Each of these difficult puzzles will require some knowledge gained elsewhere in the area. This means that the player will have to explore around a bit when they first enter the area before they find a puzzle they can gain some traction on, but hopefully it will create that fun experience where the player realizes, after learning some new concept: “Aha! I know how to do that other puzzle now!”

I always try to push myself to do better with every new thing I add to the game. It’s what keeps this project engaging and enjoyable for me over such a long development cycle. (coming up on 6 years now!) Unfortunately this does mean that each new area has tended to take longer than the previous one, but I’m excited to get started on the Mill, and I think it has potential to be one of the better areas in the game.

75. Putting the Ends Together

I am still working on the Endgame area. I had hoped to be done with it by the end of last year, if you can believe that. So I would say things are progressing quite a bit slower than anticipated. With that said, the puzzle design for this area is now complete, as is most of the art, so I’ve just been assembling the pieces that I’ve created. Wiring up the bits and the bobs, so to speak. I’ve been doing a lot of this on stream, compromising a bit on my desire to keep everything about the Endgame unspoiled, but I think it’s more important for me to be able to focus and get the Endgame area done as quickly as I can.

Here’s a spoiler-free screenshot of some of that:

Once I finish the Endgame, there’s really only one large task left on the list, which is the Mill. So, in spite of being behind schedule, there’s still a decent chance that I can ship the game roughly on time. As I regretted in the previous devlog post, I do wish there were more time for me to polish up stuff and re-do bits I’m not as happy with as I could be. But alas…

One major thing that I’ve had to cut is simultaneous console ports of the game. The current plan is for the initial release of the game to be PC only, and then I will do one unannounced console port as soon as is reasonable. It would help me a lot with determining where best to focus if you would answer the following poll.

71. Trees in the Wind

I’ve wanted to get animation for the trees into the game for a while, but could never quite manage it. I’ve tried many different approaches to this, but always the main issue is that the game renders at a fixed low-resolution pixel grid.

Some other pixel art games choose to render the game at a higher internal resolution than that of the actual pixel art, which means that you can rotate sprites without much aliasing. You can see a comparison between a high-res rotation-based animation (left) and how the effect breaks down when you render at a low resolution (right):

I have never liked the look of pixel art games that mix different resolutions, so I chose to render Taiji in a way that would force all effects in the game to be rendered at the same resolution of the base pixel art. But as you can see above, this means that rotating pixel art tends to cause strange artifacts that sort of look like edges sliding across the image. Obviously, this is very unaesthetic looking, and we need to try something else.

One possibility that I tried was to add in some noise to attempt to jitter out the sampling and create a smoother look. This removes the “sliding edges” appearance, but ends up adding in a lot of noise along edges. The effect could perhaps work well with a game that has a more forgiving art-style with a lot of noise built into the graphics.

So, with a couple of failures under my belt, I decided to rule out large motions such as rotating the entire tree, and instead I focused my efforts on animating the leaves on their own. This type of effect can be done fairly easily in a shader by simply adding in a noise offset when you sample the texture for the leaves.

This is certainly an improvement, but the effect is a bit too strong. Also if you look at it closely, it feels more like the tree is underwater than being effected in the wind. We could tone the strength of the distortion down, but then the motion becomes so subtle that it’s almost not worth having.

Another possibility that I attempted was to custom author a secondary texture which would control how the distortion was applied. I tried using a noise texture with leaf pattern built into it. I even did some tests pre-rendering leaves with Blender so that I could use the scene normals of the leaves to modulate the distortion.

I didn’t save this iteration of the shader, but suffice to say that it did not work much better than the purely random noise I was using earlier.

However, I started to think that an approach similar to how I animated the grass would be effective. The grass is essentially just a flat texture on the inside, with all the distortion happening along the outside edges.

So what would it look like if I did the same for the trees?

We’re getting close! This effect is even more pleasing, with a better balance between the details of the original pixel art and significant enough motion to be worthwhile. However, the motion feels a bit unnatural because it is confined completely to the outside edges.

What I chose to do to resolve this was to re-incorporate the idea of having a secondary texture control where the distortion effect can be applied. When used to highlight the internal edges, this forms the final effect. The wind map texture is below on the left. You can see that some interior pixels are colored red, those are the ones that are allowed to be distorted in the final effect on the right:

Overall, I’m pretty happy with how this came out. It adds some much needed motion to the trees, giving those scenes a more dynamic feel, and it doesn’t distort the base pixel art so much that it feels unnatural.

For a fun bonus, remember when I said that the unconstrained effect looked like water? I ended up using the same effect for this reflection in the water: